People often talk about culture in simple terms–as when someone says: I want to learn about ‘the culture’. In fact, culture is a highly complex phenomenon. In this episode, Joseph Shaules and Ishita Ray discuss how complexity theory can help us understand the dynamic nature of culture. They touch on emergent properties, fractals, and the “simplification bias” – our tendency to experience complexity in simple ways. We also hear from Emre Seven and Zeina Matar and explore the challenges of developing a more complex understanding of culture.